Charcoal

Acrylic on Canvas, 2019
200 x 170 cm

Andisols (from Japanese ando, "black soil") are soils that have formed in volcanic ash or other volcanic ejecta. They differ from those of other orders in that they typically are dominated by glass and short-range-order colloidal weathering products such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite.

Volcanic soils form by weathering of volcanogenic materials. Their distribution on the Earth parallels that of terrestrial volcanoes, and they are found across various climates, but most of them are classified as Andisols.

Andisols occupy about 1% of the global ice-free land area. Most occur around the Pacific Ring of Fire, with the largest areas found in central Chile, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, the Pacific Northwest US, Japan, Java and New Zealand's North Island.

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